While I wouldn’t consider myself a l33t sysadmin by any means (I’m always learning), I can say that I learned a lot over the past few months and I would like to share my experience with the various cPanel certificates, more specifically, CWSA-1.
There are four primary certificates which range from entry-level cPanel administration to advanced command-line and WHM administration. I’ve got them all (weird flex, I know…)
cPanel & WHM are used extensively in the web hosting industry and for good reason too! I’m not going to shill for cPanel here but I can say that it is very easy to use. The extensibility and integration it offers with systems like LiteSpeed web server, Acronis backup services and other utilities makes it a powerful tool for hosting and managing websites.
If you’re looking to learn a lot about DNS, email and explore databases at a greater detail, the folks at cPanel have done an excellent job at making the course interactive and easy to follow.
Furthermore, cPanel university is completely free! No exam fees, no course fees, you can learn anything and everything from university.cpanel.com!
The CWA and CWSA-1 are certifications aimed at understanding the underlying behaviour of cPanel and WHM as well as the various programs that are interfaced from it. Basically, you are going to use Linux command-line utilities to perform analysis and administration on mail, DNS, database and web server sub-systems.
If you have done the CWA, the CWSA-1 section will dive deep into administering services like Dovecot, Exim and SpamAssassin directly from the command-line. You will soon learn that mail-headers, mail-logs and exim-logs are very important in troubleshooting issues with cPanel accounts.
cPanel University has done an excellent job at teaching you the basics as well as the administrative tasks one might do through WHM, cPanel or via the CLI. This includes managing DNS records, taking backups of the zone and much more.
In the CWSA-1 database section, you will get right into diagnosing and fixing common issues with MySQL databases as well as maintaining, backing up and interacting via the CLI.
In the web server administration side of things, you get right into managing and customizing PHP versions and configurations. Depending on the technologies you’re using, this can be about Apache, Nginx, LiteSpeed. Since Apache (or LiteSpeed) is the primary focus here, you’ll get to learn about administering these services.
If you’re planning to get into the web hosting industry or looking to sharpen your skills, check out cPanel University and maybe you’ll earn a certificate or two from the courses they offer. I would highly recommend having an instance of cPanel and WHM on a server so you can play around with it and get familiar.
If you have any questions regarding cPanel certification or want to share your ideas on it, feel free to comment below! Thanks for reading.]]>
After much digging, I found out that there are two lines which need to be set to false in order for the website to behave.
Such swift solution to an annoying problem!
If you’re having another issue, this guide might not be for you.
Go into your
wp-config.php and locate the following lines:
define( 'DISALLOW_FILE_MOD' , true); define( 'DISALLOW_FILE_EDIT', true);
Now set the
true values to
It’s as simple as that.
For those wondering why I haven’t been posting articles, I’ve been pretty busy with other things in life so I didn’t have the time to write up articles.
I’m thinking of writing up more workflow/computing related stuff and less tutorials. I feel like there are tutorials for everything (unless it is something important and worth sharing).
I’ve got a few things planned so stay tuned!]]>
PowerToys is a revival of the “PowerToys” project that was available on Windows 95.
Fancy Zones: If you have used any tiling window manager, you wold know how beneficial they are for your workflow. PowerToys comes with a tiling feature called “FancyZones” which allows you to position windows into various layouts. You can create custom layouts, whether it is for development, monitoring windows or graphics design, I found FancyZones to be super helpful.
Reassigning Keyboard Shortcuts: Keyboard shortcuts are one of those things that are hard to let go, especially if you have used it to move and manipulate windows around. I like to maximise my windows with
Start + X and close them with
Start + C.
Remapping Keys: Ever wonder why the caps-lock key is hardly ever used? I tend to think it’s meant to be remapped to something else. By default, you cannot map keys on Windows but with PowerToys you can. Over the years, I have made caps lock my escape key. I find it very convenient for many situations especially if you use text editors like VIM.
Colour Picker: Sometimes I just want to pick a colour from my desktop without having to install a colour picking tool. If you’re a keyboard driven person and you do any form of graphics design, you will appreciate this feature.
Image Resizer: If you want to resize images without having to open a photo editing program like GIMP, you can use this built-in utility for quickly resizing images directly from the Windows File Explorer.
PowerToys Run: For ex-Mac users or those who want a different way to launch applications. This convenient utility can be triggered with
Alt + Space and then you start typing. It is open-source and the functionality can be extended with plugins.
PowerRename: This is more convenient than I thought but I hardly do bulk-renaming. However for those who have many files in a folder and would like to bulk-rename things, this is the tool for you. Once PowerToys is installed, it is associates itself with Windows Explorer so you can simply select your files and perform bulk-renaming.
I would recommend running PowerToys as administrator, especially if you plan to use custom keyboard shortcuts as some applications won’t respond to shortcuts if you don’t. As the app is under heavy-development, there are some bugs however they are quick to fix it and often each release comes with new or improved features.
If you want to try it out, download it from GitHub (scroll down to “Assets”) or you can read more on the repository home page.]]>
Alright, if you don’t have a
.ssh directory created, make it and make sure you give access to only yourself.
mkdir -p ~/.ssh chmod 700 ~/.ssh cd ~/.ssh
Next thing is to create a RSA key. To do this, use the
ssh-keygen -t rsa
Once done, you want to use the
ssh-copy-id command to copy the public part of your SSH key to the remote server you want to connect to. Here’s an example
ssh-copy-id -i ~/.ssh/id_rsa.pub email@example.com
userwith the username you use to connect to the server.
server.comwith your server address
-p <port_num>before the “firstname.lastname@example.org” parameter.
That’s it! You can now connect to your server without entering passwords, all you need is a username, hostname and maybe port number. If you want to simplify things further, you can create a SSH profile and all you have to type is
ssh myserver to connect.
I studied using the Juniper Genius online lessons and I would recommend them as they are very detailed and easy to understand. One thing I should have done was search for more practice tests as the Juniper practice tests did not cover everything. That said, the majority of the practice questions were very similar to the one on the actual exam.
I was fortunate enough to spend time on the Juniper virtual routers at my university. If you don’t have access to the routers, I believe there are virtual images which you can use with GNS3.
To summarize what’s on the test, I would highly recommend studying the following:
You can read more on Juniper’s website.
90 minutes is given to complete the exam but if you’re well prepared, you should be able to finish it fairly quickly with plenty of time to spare. There are 65 questions on the exam and I would highly recommend going through the practice and voucher tests one-last-time as well as any other questions you find online as they will be fresh in your mind.
From what I read online, many had a poor experience with the Pearson OnVUE Online Proctoring system however for me it went well. To take the test, you need some form of ID verification like a driver’s license. I would recommend clearing your desk and putting any pens, notebooks, books out of reach.
Since the proctoring software locks down your computer, I would recommend creating a local user account separate from your personal one to do the test. You’re basically going to give a 360 degree view of your room / testing environment before the exam but apart from that, they are going to look at you. I would prefer doing it at a testing venue but due to covid lockdowns, this was my only option.
I’m happy with my performance on the exam however I do have to work on my firewall policies. My next goal is to look at JNCIS-Junos and Microsoft Azure.
Hope this helps!]]>
Because I don’t need this utility, I decided to disable this and the place you want to look is inside your file system table. To view it, simply run:
If you see quota, usrquota or grpquota, then you have quota enabled. To see if this is indeed the issue, assuming you’re already SSH’d into the server, simply type the command:
quotaoff -v /
You may have to replace “ / “ with the directory your server is installed on. E.g. “quotaoff -v /home”. If this solves your problem and Nextcloud can be accessed again, we can proceed to disable the quota functionality.
To disable, simply open the
/etc/fstab file in your text editor.
nano comes preinstalled on most distributions so you can use that if you are unsure. Now you need to remove any mention of “quota” from the partition. This is generally found after the file system type (e.g. ext4, btrfs, zfs)
Hope this helps. As always, be sure to read your logs before you copy-paste commands as your problem can be different to the one in this article.]]>
Standard Notes is designed around encryption and privacy. They have done security audits and reading their blog on how they encrypt, not to mention the entire system being 100% open-source, it’s something I can trust. It gives me the peace of mind and from a productivity standpoint, it’s quite a joy to use.
Standard Notes comes with an AppImage which is similar to a Flatpak or Snap where the application is basically sandboxed. Sandboxing is where an application has restricted access to system services, libraries and resources. For instance, the Discord Flatpak can’t see my running tasks and can only see my Downloads directory.
When you go to Standard Notes’ website and download the Linux app, you simply download it and launch it. If it doesn’t launch the first time, you may have to right-click on the executable and allow the executing the file as a program.
Depending on your distribution and desktop environment, it may actually do the integration for you. Manjaro for instance allows AppImages to be installed and you can launch it from your application menu or whatever have you. On Fedora and I’m guessing a lot of other distros (specifically ones that use GNOME), you can’t just double-click and have it automatically installed into your system.
Now we come to integrating Standard Notes into our system. You want to create a file inside the
~/.local/share/applications/ directory called
standard-notes.desktop. The file name doesn’t matter but to keep it consistent, we’ll use that.
You want to put the downloaded AppImage file somewhere where you won’t move it around. I keep downloaded AppImages in
~/Downloads/software . I would also recommend that you rename the AppImage to something like
To edit the
standard-notes.desktop file, you can either use a terminal text editor or whatever you have. Simply navigate or
cd into the “~/.local/share/applications” directory and create that file. Then, paste the following contents:
[Desktop Entry] Encoding=UTF-8 Name=Standard Notes Comment=A Simple And Private Notes App Exec=<PATH-TO-APPIMAGE> Icon=standard-notes StartupWMClass=Standard Notes Type=Application Categories=Office;
Of course, you want to replace
<PATH-TO-APPIMAGE> with the path to the Standard Notes AppImage. For me, it will look like this:
[Desktop Entry] Encoding=UTF-8 Name=Standard Notes Comment=A Simple And Private Notes App Exec=/home/berk/Downloads/software/standard-notes.AppImage Icon=standard-notes StartupWMClass=Standard Notes Type=Application Categories=Office;
Once done, save it and you should be able to launch Standard Notes from your start/app menu. If you’re on GNOME, simply press
start (what do we call it these days? ) and type the name of the app.
That’s it, happy editing. If you have any questions, feel free to drop a comment below. Hope this helps!]]>
They support Linux (specifically Ubuntu / Debian based distros that use .deb packages), Windows and MacOS. I found a script on GitHub that did the job for me when installing Bitwig on Fedora however it is no longer maintained so I decided to improve it and add some things.
If you’re on Fedora Workstation, you can simply run the command below and it will download the necessary packages and install Bitwig Studio for you. If you don’t have a license, you can use the demo which gives you access to everything but you can’t export your projects.
The way this script works is it first installs any dependencies that are missing (e.g. JACK, dpkg) and then fetches the latest version of Bitwig Studio from their website. It automatically scrapes the website for the latest version and downloads that. It also create a shortcut on your system so you can launch it.
Run this one-liner:
cd /tmp && wget https://raw.githubusercontent.com/berkiyo/bitwig-fedora/master/install.sh && chmod 777 install.sh && ./install.sh
You can follow my project repository if you want to stay up-to-date on any changes. You can also inspect the script before you run it.
Epiphany! That’s the name of GNOME’s flagship web browser. It’s a simple browser but it has one killer feature that can turn websites into web apps! The beauty of this is that you can do this for any website, whether you use social platforms like Instagram or Twitter, it’s a perfect way to integrate it with the rest of your system. Also, all web apps you create are sandboxed meaning they aren’t going to snoop or interfere with your browser (a win for privacy!)
Epiphany is the package name but GNOMEies like to refer to it as GNOME Web. This package should be basically on every distribution repository but if you’re anti-GNOME or something, you might want to look else where. You can install it through your software center / desired package manager or depending on your distro, you can try the command line method.
# fedora sudo dnf install epiphany # ubuntu / linux mint / debian et. al. sudo apt install epiphany-browser # arch linux / manjaro sudo pacman -S epiphany # flatpak (uses flathub.org repos) flatpak install flathub org.gnome.Epiphany
Basically, open the browser and go to notion.so and login. Once done, open the menu (top-right) and click on “Install Site as Web Application”.
You will then get a popup like shown below. Simply click “Create” or give it a different name.
That’s it! Now you can open your menu or if you’re on GNOME, just press Start / Super and type “notion”.
Once you run it, you’ll probably be prompted to log in and you’re good to go! Now you have a standalone Notion web app to use on your Linux machine! One downside is that it isn’t going to work offline but hey, now you can alt-tab into Notion instead of having it incorporated inside your browser.
Happy note taking!]]>